There are five pillars in Islam as what Prophet Muhammad ﷺ said:
Islam is raised on five (pillars):
1. Bearing witness that there is no god except Allah and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah
2. Establishment of prayer
3. The payment of Zakat
4. Pilgrimage to the House
5. The fast of Ramadan.
Testimony of Faith (Shahadah)
Witnessing that Allah is the only God and that Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is His messenger: as explained in the previous section 2.1.
Muslims pray to God five times a day in the mosques, from the benefits of praying:
- Having communication with God who created us
- Meeting with Muslims periodically every day, connecting with each other, which strengthens the Islamic society.
- Helping us stop sinning. Allah says in the Holy Quran:
Recite that which has been revealed of the Book and observe Prayer. Surely, Prayer restrains one from indecency and manifest evil; and the remembrance of ALLAH is the greatest virtue. And ALLAH knows what you do. (Holy Quran 29:45)
Paying Charity (Zakat)
Every mature able Muslim pays 2.5% of his income to help in building Islamic society, this is the minimum, God promised us with high rewards for paying more and more.
Whatever you lay out at interest that it may increase the wealth of the people, it does not increase in the sight of ALLAH; but whatever you give in Zakat, seeking the pleasure of ALLAH – it is these who will increase their wealth manifold. (Holy Quran 30:39)
The people whom Zakat is paid to are those whom Allah tells in the Quran:
Zakat expenditures are only for the poor and for the needy and for those employed to collect [zakat] and for bringing hearts together [for Islam] and for freeing captives [or slaves] and for those in debt and for the cause of Allah and for the [stranded] traveler – an obligation [imposed] by Allah . And Allah is Knowing and Wise. (Holy Quran 9:60)
Every healthy mature able Muslim must fast Ramadan (one of the Islamic months), all Muslims fast together in this month by stopping eating and drinking along the day, they begin fasting at the dawn, they have breakfast at the Sunset. This really builds the Muslim character, trains him to control his desire and his passion, besides when all Muslims fast together, this gives a beautiful picture of the Muslims being uniform, and it also makes the rich feel the hunger and thrusts of the poor and motivates the rich to help the poor. Allah says in the Holy Quran:
O who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard against evil.(Holy Quran 2:183)
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Every healthy able Muslim must do it once in his life. It is the annual Muslim conference where about 6 million Muslims meet to answer God’s call, wearing simple clothes, declaring their total obedience to God.
The rites of the Hajj (pilgrimage) include circling the Kaaba seven times and going seven times between the hillocks of Safa and Marwa, as Hagar did during her search for water. Then the pilgrims stand together in Arafa and ask God for what they wish and for His forgiveness, in what is often thought of as a preview of the Day of Judgment.
The Hajj is marked by a festival, Eid Al-Adha, which is celebrating the sacrifice of Abraham to his son Ishmael.
This is one of two annual festivals of the Muslim calendar aside with Eid Al-Fitr; the feast commemorating the end of Ramadan and beginning of breakfast. Allah says in the Quran regarding the pilgrimage:
Surely the first House founded for all mankind is that at Bakka, abounding in blessings and guidance for all peoples. 97. In it are manifest Signs; it is the place of Abraham; and whoso enters it, is safe. And pilgrimage to the House is a duty which men – those who can find a way thither – owe to ALLAH. And whoso disbelieves let him remember that ALLAH is surely Independent of all creatures. (Holy Quran 3:96-97)